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Strahlenther Onkol. 2014 Feb;190(2):158-64. doi: 10.1007/s00066-013-0500-5. Epub 2014 Jan 11.

Oxaliplatin and capecitabine concomitant with neoadjuvant radiotherapy and extended to the resting period in high risk locally advanced rectal cancer.

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State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, 651 Dongfeng Road East, 510060, Guangzhou, P.R. China.



Conventional neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is suboptimal for systemic control in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). To improve systemic control, we developed an alternative approach in which an intensified oxaliplatin and capecitabine (XELOX) chemotherapy regimen was administered concomitantly with radiation and extended to the resting period (consolidation chemotherapy) for high-risk LARC. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and toxicity of this strategy.


Patients with high-risk LARC were treated with CRT. Two cycles of XELOX were administered concomitantly with radiation. Thereafter, an additional cycle of the same regimen was administered during the resting period after completion of CRT. Tumor response, toxicities and surgical complications were recorded.


This study includes 36 patients treated with the above strategy. All patients completed the planned concurrent CRT. Because of grade 3 toxicities, 2 patients were unable to complete the additional chemotherapy. Grade 3 toxicities were leucopenia (2.8 %), diarrhea (2.8 %) and radiodermatitis (2.8 %). All patients underwent optimal surgery with total mesorectal excision (TME) and a sphincter-saving procedure was performed in 27 patients (75 %). There was no perioperative mortality. Postoperative complications developed in 7 patients (19.4 %). Pathologic complete regression (pCR),"nearly pCR" (major regression), and moderate or minimal regression were achieved in 13 (36.1 %), 16 (44.4 %), and 7 patients (19.5 %), respectively.


The preliminary results suggest that a XELOX regimen initially administered concomitantly with radiotherapy and then extended to the resting period in high-risk LARC patients is well tolerated. The strategy is highly effective in terms of pCR and nearly pCR rates, and thus warrants further investigation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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