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Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2015 Feb 15;85(3):393-9. doi: 10.1002/ccd.25359. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Temporal trends of fluoroscopy time and contrast utilization in coronary chronic total occlusion revascularization: insights from a multicenter United States registry.

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Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Oregon University Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.



The impact of operator experience on fluoroscopy time and contrast utilization during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs) has received limited study.


We evaluated temporal trends in fluoroscopy time and contrast utilization among 1,363 consecutive CTO PCIs performed at three US institutions between January 2006 and November 2011.


Mean age was 65 ± 11 years, 85% of patients were men, 40% had diabetes, 37% had prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and 42% had prior PCI. The CTO target vessel was the right coronary artery (55%), circumflex (23%), left anterior descending artery (21%), and left main or bypass graft (1%). The retrograde approach was used in 34% of all procedures. The technical and procedural success rates were 85.5 and 84.2%, respectively. The mean procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and contrast utilization were 113 ± 61 min, 42 ± 29 min, and 294 ± 158 mL, respectively. Years since initiation of CTO PCI were independently associated with higher technical success rate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52-1.70, P < 0.001), lower fluoroscopy time (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75-0.95, P = 0.005), and contrast utilization (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.62-0.79, P < 0.001) during the study period.


Among selected US-based institutions performing CTO PCI, we observed a significant reduction in total fluoroscopy time and contrast utilization paralleled with an improved technical success rate over time.


chronic total occlusion; contrast volume; fluoroscopy; percutaneous coronary intervention; temporal trends

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