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Nat Commun. 2014;5:2876. doi: 10.1038/ncomms3876.

Multiple recent horizontal transfers of a large genomic region in cheese making fungi.

Author information

1
INRA, UMR1319 Micalis, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France; Genomic Vision, 80-84 rue des Meuniers, 92220 Bagneux, France; AgroParisTech, UMR Micalis, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France.
2
Origine, Structure, Evolution de la Biodiversité, UMR 7205 CNRS-MNHN, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CP39, 57 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France; Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, UMR8079, 91405 Orsay, France; CNRS, Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, UMR8079, 91405 Orsay, France.
3
INRA, UMR1319 Micalis, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France; AgroParisTech, UMR Micalis, F-78352 Jouy-en-Josas, France.
4
Origine, Structure, Evolution de la Biodiversité, UMR 7205 CNRS-MNHN, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, CP39, 57 rue Cuvier, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.
5
LIMP Toulouse, INRA/CNRS, INRA, 24 Chemin de Borde Rouge-Auzeville, CS 52627, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex, France; INRA, Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes-Microorganismes (LIPM), UMR441, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France; CNRS, Laboratoire des Interactions Plantes-Microorganismes (LIPM), UMR2594, F-31326 Castanet-Tolosan, France.
6
Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, UMR8079, 91405 Orsay, France; CNRS, Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, UMR8079, 91405 Orsay, France.
7
Genomic Vision, 80-84 rue des Meuniers, 92220 Bagneux, France.
8
Univ Paris-Sud, Institut de Génétique et Microbiologie, UMR8621, 91405 Orsay, France; CNRS, Institut de Génétique et Microbiologie UMR8621, 91405 Orsay, France.
9
Univ Paris-Sud, Institut de Génétique et Microbiologie, UMR8621, 91405 Orsay, France; Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Institut des Energies de Demain (IED), 75205 Paris, France.
10
Univ Paris-Sud, Institut de Génétique et Microbiologie, UMR8621, 91405 Orsay, France.
11
13 ruelle d'Aigrefoin 78470 St Rémy-lès-Chevreuse.

Abstract

While the extent and impact of horizontal transfers in prokaryotes are widely acknowledged, their importance to the eukaryotic kingdom is unclear and thought by many to be anecdotal. Here we report multiple recent transfers of a huge genomic island between Penicillium spp. found in the food environment. Sequencing of the two leading filamentous fungi used in cheese making, P. roqueforti and P. camemberti, and comparison with the penicillin producer P. rubens reveals a 575 kb long genomic island in P. roqueforti--called Wallaby--present as identical fragments at non-homologous loci in P. camemberti and P. rubens. Wallaby is detected in Penicillium collections exclusively in strains from food environments. Wallaby encompasses about 250 predicted genes, some of which are probably involved in competition with microorganisms. The occurrence of multiple recent eukaryotic transfers in the food environment provides strong evidence for the importance of this understudied and probably underestimated phenomenon in eukaryotes.

PMID:
24407037
PMCID:
PMC3896755
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms3876
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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