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J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014 May;23(5):428-33. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2013.4511. Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Onsite provision of specialized contraceptive services: does Title X funding enhance access?

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1 Bixby Center for Global Reproductive Health, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California , San Francisco, California.



This article presents the extent to which providers enrolled in California's Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment (Family PACT) program offer contraceptive methods onsite, thus eliminating one important access barrier. Family PACT has a diverse provider network, including public-sector providers receiving Title X funding, public-sector providers not receiving Title X funding, and private-sector providers. We explored whether Title X funding enhances providers' ability to offer contraceptive methods that require specialized skills onsite.


Data were derived from 1,072 survey responses to a 2010 provider-capacity survey matched by unique identifier to administrative claims data.


A significantly greater proportion of Title X-funded providers compared to non-Title X public and private providers offered onsite services for the following studied methods: intrauterine contraceptives (90% Title X, 51% public non-Title X, 38% private); contraceptive implants (58% Title X, 19% public non-Title X, 7% private); vasectomy (8% Title X, 4% public non-Title X, 1% private); and fertility-awareness methods (69% Title X, 55% public non-Title X, 49% private) (all p<0.0001). The association between onsite provision and Title X funding remained after stratifying individually by clinic specialty, facility capacity to provide reproductive health services (based on staffing), and rural/urban location.


Extra funding for publicly funded family-planning programs, through mechanisms such as Title X, appears to be associated with increased onsite access to a wide range of contraceptive services, including those that require special skills and training.

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