Send to

Choose Destination
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2014 Aug 1;84(2):236-44. doi: 10.1002/ccd.25384. Epub 2014 Feb 5.

Effective endovascular treatment of calcified femoropopliteal disease with directional atherectomy and distal embolic protection: final results of the DEFINITIVE Ca⁺⁺ trial.

Author information

Sutter Heart and Vascular Institute, Sacramento, California.



The purpose of the DEFINITIVE Ca(++) study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of directional atherectomy and distal embolic protection, used together to treat moderate to severely calcified femoropopliteal lesions.


Despite advances in endovascular treatment modalities, treatment of calcified lesions remains a challenge.


A total of 133 subjects with 168 moderate to severely calcified lesions were enrolled. Lesions were treated with directional atherectomy devices, coupled with distal embolic protection.


The 30-day freedom from MAE rate was 93.1%. Per angiographic core laboratory assessment, the primary effectiveness endpoint (≤50% residual diameter stenosis) was achieved in 92.0% (lower confidence bound of 87.6%) of lesions. By core lab analysis, these results did not achieve the success criteria (90%) for the primary effectiveness objective. Per site assessment, the objective was met with the endpoint being achieved in 97.0% (lower confidence bound 93.8%). A mean residual diameter stenosis of 33.3% was achieved with the directional atherectomy device. This was further decreased to 24.1% with the use of adjunctive therapy. The proportion of asymptomatic subjects [Rutherford Clinical Category (RCC) = 0] increased from 0% at baseline to 52.3% at the 30-day follow-up visit. In total, 88.5% of subjects experienced an improvement of one or more Rutherford categories.


The results of the DEFINITIVE Ca++ study demonstrate that the SilverHawk and TurboHawk atherectomy devices are safe and effective in the endovascular treatment of moderate to severely calcified lesions in the superficial femoral and/or popliteal arteries when used with the SpiderFX distal embolic protection device.


atherosclerosis; filter protection; peripheral arterial disease; peripheral vascular disease; plaque excision; revascularization

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center