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Nature. 2014 Jan 9;505(7482):174-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12826.

Elephant shark genome provides unique insights into gnathostome evolution.

Author information

1
1] Comparative Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673 [2] Department of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228.
2
Comparative Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673.
3
Developmental and Biomedical Genetics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673.
4
Department of Developmental Immunology, Max-Planck-Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics, Stuebeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg, Germany.
5
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.
6
Department of Pathology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.
7
Molecular Engineering Laboratory, Biomedical Sciences Institutes, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673.
8
Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132, USA.
9
Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada.
10
Fish Developmental Biology Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR, Biopolis, Singapore 138673.
11
1] Institut de Biologia Evolutiva (UPF-CSIC), PRBB, 08003 Barcelona, Spain [2] Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
12
Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.
13
The Genome Institute at Washington University, St Louis, Missouri 63108, USA.

Erratum in

  • Nature. 2014 Sep 25;513(7519):574.

Abstract

The emergence of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) from jawless vertebrates was accompanied by major morphological and physiological innovations, such as hinged jaws, paired fins and immunoglobulin-based adaptive immunity. Gnathostomes subsequently diverged into two groups, the cartilaginous fishes and the bony vertebrates. Here we report the whole-genome analysis of a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). We find that the C. milii genome is the slowest evolving of all known vertebrates, including the 'living fossil' coelacanth, and features extensive synteny conservation with tetrapod genomes, making it a good model for comparative analyses of gnathostome genomes. Our functional studies suggest that the lack of genes encoding secreted calcium-binding phosphoproteins in cartilaginous fishes explains the absence of bone in their endoskeleton. Furthermore, the adaptive immune system of cartilaginous fishes is unusual: it lacks the canonical CD4 co-receptor and most transcription factors, cytokines and cytokine receptors related to the CD4 lineage, despite the presence of polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. It thus presents a new model for understanding the origin of adaptive immunity.

PMID:
24402279
PMCID:
PMC3964593
DOI:
10.1038/nature12826
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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