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Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jan;232(1):17-24. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.10.017. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

Hydroxytyrosol suppresses MMP-9 and COX-2 activity and expression in activated human monocytes via PKCα and PKCβ1 inhibition.

Author information

1
National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC), Lecce, Italy.
2
Department of Biological and Environmental Science and Technologies, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.
3
"G. Monasterio" Foundation for Clinical Research, Pisa, Italy; "G. d'Annunzio" University and Center of Excellence on Aging, Chieti, Italy.
4
National Research Council (CNR), Institute of Clinical Physiology (IFC), Lecce, Italy. Electronic address: maria.carluccio@ifc.cnr.it.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Hydroxytyrosol (HT), the major olive oil antioxidant polyphenol in cardioprotective Mediterranean diets, is endowed with anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activity. The production of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2-dependent inflammatory eicosanoids and the functionally linked release of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 by macrophages likely contribute to plaque instability leading to acute coronary events. Objective of the study was to examine the HT effects on inflammatory markers in human activated monocytes, including MMP-9 and COX-2 activity and expression and explore HT underlying mechanisms.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and U937 monocytes were treated with 1-10 μmol/L HT before activation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). HT blunted monocyte matrix invasive potential and reduced MMP-9 release and expression at zymography, ELISA and RT-PCR, with an IC50 = 10 μmol/L ( P< 0.05), without affecting tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Moreover, HT inhibited prostaglandin (PG)E2 production and COX-2 expression, without affecting COX-1. These effects were mediated by inhibition of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and protein kinase C (PKC)α and PKCβ1 activation.

CONCLUSION:

HT, at nutritionally relevant concentrations, reduces MMP-9 and COX-2 induction in activated human monocytes via PKCα and PKCβ1 inhibition, thus featuring novel anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, such results contribute to explaining the vascular protective effects by olive oil polyphenols in Mediterranean diets.

KEYWORDS:

Cyclooxygenase-2; Hydroxytyrosol; Inflammation; Matrix metalloproteinase-9; Nuclear factor-κB; Oxidative stress; Protein kinase C

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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