Send to

Choose Destination
Front Pediatr. 2013 Dec 27;1:53. doi: 10.3389/fped.2013.00053.

Cleft lip - a comprehensive review.

Author information

Department of Otolaryngology, Wayne State University School of Medicine , Detroit, MI , USA.


Orofacial clefts comprise a range of congenital deformities and are the most common head and neck congenital malformation. Clefting has significant psychological and socio- economic effects on patient quality of life and require a multidisciplinary team approach for management. The complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in the incidence and cause of clefting. In this review, the embryology, classification, epidemiology, and etiology of cleft lip are discussed. The primary goals of surgical repair are to restore normal function, speech development, and facial esthetics. Different techniques are employed based on surgeon expertise and the unique patient presentations. Pre-surgical orthopedics are frequently employed prior to definitive repair to improve outcomes. Long term follow up and quality of life studies are discussed.


cleft lip repair; congenital abnormalities; nasal deformity; orofacial clefting; xcleft lip

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Frontiers Media SA Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center