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PLoS One. 2014 Jan 6;9(1):e77974. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077974. eCollection 2014.

25 years after Vi typhoid vaccine efficacy study, typhoid affects significant number of population in Nepal.

Author information

  • 1MITRA Samaj Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu, Nepal ; Group for Technical Assistance, Sanepa, Nepal.
  • 2International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, South Korea.
  • 3MITRA Samaj Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  • 4Child Health Division, Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Population, Kathmandu, Nepal.


Salmonella Typhi, first isolated in 1884, results in infection of the intestines and can end in death and disability. Due to serious adverse events post vaccination, whole cell killed vaccines have been replaced with new generation vaccines. The efficacy of Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) vaccine, a new generation, single-dose intramuscular typhoid vaccine was assessed in Nepal in 1987. However, despite the availability of ViPS vaccine for more than 25 years, Nepal has one of the highest incidence of typhoid fever. Therefore we collected information from hospitals in the Kathmandu Valley from over the past five years. There were 9901 enteric fever cases between January 2008 and July 2012. 1,881 of these were confirmed typhoid cases from five hospitals in the Kathmandu district. Approximately 70% of the cases involved children under 15 years old. 1281 cases were confirmed as S. Paratyphi. Vaccines should be prioritized for control of typhoid in conjunction with improved water and sanitation conditions in Nepal and in endemic countries of Asia and Africa.

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