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Transl Stroke Res. 2014 Feb;5(1):156-62. doi: 10.1007/s12975-013-0320-z. Epub 2014 Jan 8.

Ion channels in regulation of neuronal regenerative activities.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

Abstract

The regeneration of the nervous system is achieved by the regrowth of damaged neuronal axons, the restoration of damaged nerve cells, and the generation of new neurons to replace those that have been lost. In the central nervous system, the regenerative ability is limited by various factors including damaged oligodendrocytes that are essential for neuronal axon myelination, an emerging glial scar, and secondary injury in the surrounding areas. Stem cell transplantation therapy has been shown to be a promising approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases because of the regenerative capability of the stem cells that secrete neurotrophic factors and give rise to differentiated progeny. However, some issues of stem cell transplantation, such as survival, homing, and efficiency of neural differentiation after transplantation, still need to be improved. Ion channels allow for the exchange of ions between the intra- and extracellular spaces or between the cytoplasm and organelles. These ion channels maintain the ion homeostasis in the brain and play a key role in regulating the physiological function of the nervous system and allowing the processing of neuronal signals. In seeking a potential strategy to enhance the efficacy of stem cell therapy in neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, this review briefly summarizes the roles of ion channels in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, chemotropic axon guidance of growth cones, and axon outgrowth after injury.

PMID:
24399572
PMCID:
PMC3961762
DOI:
10.1007/s12975-013-0320-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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