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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 May;68(5):581-6. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.277. Epub 2014 Jan 8.

The adaptive metabolic response to exercise-induced weight loss influences both energy expenditure and energy intake.

Author information

1
1] Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Department of Sport, Academy of Sport and Physical Activity, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK [2] Faculty of Medicine and Health, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
2
Faculty of Medicine and Health, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
3
Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
4
Division of Surgery, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
5
School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:

A decline in resting energy expenditure (REE) beyond that predicted from changes in body composition has been noted following dietary-induced weight loss. However, it is unknown whether a compensatory downregulation in REE also accompanies exercise (EX)-induced weight loss, or whether this adaptive metabolic response influences energy intake (EI).

SUBJECTS/METHODS:

Thirty overweight and obese women (body mass index (BMI)=30.6±3.6 kg/m(2)) completed 12 weeks of supervised aerobic EX. Body composition, metabolism, EI and metabolic-related hormones were measured at baseline, week 6 and post intervention. The metabolic adaptation (MA), that is, difference between predicted and measured REE was also calculated post intervention (MApost), with REE predicted using a regression equation generated in an independent sample of 66 overweight and obese women (BMI=31.0±3.9 kg/m(2)).

RESULTS:

Although mean predicted and measured REE did not differ post intervention, 43% of participants experienced a greater-than-expected decline in REE (-102.9±77.5 kcal per day). MApost was associated with the change in leptin (r=0.47; P=0.04), and the change in resting fat (r=0.52; P=0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation (r=-0.44; P=0.02). Furthermore, MApost was also associated with the change in EI following EX (r=-0.44; P=0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Marked variability existed in the adaptive metabolic response to EX. Importantly, those who experienced a downregulation in REE also experienced an upregulation in EI, indicating that the adaptive metabolic response to EX influences both physiological and behavioural components of energy balance.

PMID:
24398647
DOI:
10.1038/ejcn.2013.277
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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