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Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2014 May-Jun;58(3):434-9. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2013.12.003. Epub 2013 Dec 22.

Tai Ji Quan and global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot study.

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Oregon Research Institute, Eugene, Oregon, United States. Electronic address:
Department of Exercise Science, Willamette University, Salem, Oregon, United States.
Key Laboratory of Exercise and Health Sciences, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.
Department of Human Physiology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, United States.


This study evaluated whether Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) could improve global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment. Using a nonrandomized control group pretest-posttest design, participants aged ≥65 years who scored between 20 and 25 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were allocated into either a 14-week TJQMBB program (n=22) or a control group (n=24). The primary outcome was MMSE as a measure of global cognitive function with secondary outcomes of 50-ft speed walk, Timed Up&Go, and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. At 14 weeks, Tai Ji Quan participants showed significant improvement on MMSE (mean=2.26, p<0.001) compared to controls (mean=0.63, p=0.08). Similarly, Tai Ji Quan participants performed significantly better compared to the controls in both physical performance and balance efficacy measures (p<0.05). Improvement in cognition as measured by MMSE was related to improved physical performance and balance efficacy. These results provide preliminary evidence of the utility of the TJQMBB program to promote cognitive function in older adults in addition to physical benefits.


Cognitive ability; Cognitive impairment; Tai Ji Quan

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