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J Dent Res. 2014 Mar;93(3):300-5. doi: 10.1177/0022034513519108. Epub 2014 Jan 3.

Expression of resolvin D1 biosynthetic pathways in salivary epithelium.

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Department of Oral Biology, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14214-3092, USA.


Resolvins are potent anti-inflammatory mediators derived from ω-3 fatty acids. Results from our previous studies indicated that resolvin D1 (RvD1) blocks pro-inflammatory responses in salivary glands. Furthermore, RvD1 enhances salivary epithelial integrity, demonstrating its potential use for the restoration of salivary gland function in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We investigated whether the RvD1 biosynthetic machinery (e.g., cytosolic phospholipase A2, calcium-independent phospholipase A2, 12/15 and 5-lipoxygenase) is expressed in mouse submandibular glands (mSMG), using qPCR and Western blot analyses. Additionally, we determined the localization of RvD1 biosynthetic machinery in mSMG and human minor salivary glands (hMSG), with and without SS, using confocal microscopy. Finally, we measured RvD1 levels in cell supernatants from mSMG cell cultures and freshly isolated mSMG cells, with and without SS, using ELISA. Our results indicate that: (1) RvD1 machinery is expressed in mouse and human salivary glands; (2) polar distribution of RvD1 biosynthetic machinery is lost in hMSG with SS; (3) RvD1 levels in mSMG cell culture supernatants increased with time; and (4) RvD1 levels in mSMG cell supernatants, with and without SS, were similar. These studies demonstrate that the RvD1 biosynthesis machinery is expressed and functional in salivary glands with and without SS.


Sjögren’s syndrome; cell biology; epithelia; inflammation; lipids; resolvins

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