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Braz J Infect Dis. 2014 Jul-Aug;18(4):421-33. doi: 10.1016/j.bjid.2013.10.005. Epub 2014 Jan 3.

Extended spectrum β-lactamase producers among nosocomial Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America.

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Hospital Privado Centro Médico de Caracas and Hospital Vargas de Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela. Electronic address:
Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.
Bacterial Resistance Group, International Center for Medical Research and Training (CIDEIM), Cali, Colombia.
Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.


To review the epidemiology of nosocomial extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America, a systematic search of the biomedical literature (PubMed) was performed for articles published since 2005. Rates of nosocomial infections caused by extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America have increased since 2005. Up to 32% of Escherichia coli and up to 58% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates are extended spectrum β-lactamase-positive, rates that are higher than in other world regions. From a region-wide perspective, 11-25% of E. coli isolates and 45-53% of K. pneumoniae isolates were nonsusceptible to third-generation cephalosporins. At the country level, there was a wide range in Enterobacteriaceae resistance rates to third-generation cephalosporins, with especially high rates of resistance to E. coli in Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico, and high resistance rates to Klebsiella spp. in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Guatemala, Honduras, and Paraguay. Susceptibility of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae to cefepime, fluoroquinolones, ampicillin/sulbactam, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin/tazobactam has also been compromised, leaving the carbapenems, tigecycline, and colistin as the only antibiotics with >90% susceptibility rates. There is a steady increase in the prevalence and types of extended spectrum β-lactamases produced by Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Latin American hospitals (particularly CTX-Ms), suggesting endemic conditions overlaid by clonal outbreaks. Appropriate treatment decisions and infection control strategies informed by surveillance of regional and local susceptibilities and mechanisms of resistance are required to mitigate this major public health concern.


Bacterial resistance; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella; Latin America

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