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Mech Ageing Dev. 2014 Mar-Apr;136-137:101-15. doi: 10.1016/j.mad.2013.12.006. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

Present and future of anti-ageing epigenetic diets.

Author information

1
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Via San Giacomo 12, 40126 Bologna, Italy; Interdepartmental Center "L. Galvani" (CIG), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
2
Department of Medicine, University of Verona School of Medicine, Policlinico "G.B. Rossi," P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona, Italy.
3
Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences (DISCLIMO), Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Tronto 10/A, 60020 Ancona, Italy; Center of Clinical Pathology and Innovative Therapy, I.N.R.C.A. National Institute, Via Birarelli n. 8, Ancona, Italy.
4
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences (BiGEA), Laboratory of Molecular Anthropology & Centre for Genome Biology, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 3, 40126 Bologna, Italy.
5
Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), University of Bologna, Via San Giacomo 12, 40126 Bologna, Italy; Interdepartmental Center "L. Galvani" (CIG), University of Bologna, Piazza di Porta San Donato 1, 40126 Bologna, Italy. Electronic address: paolo.garagnani2@unibo.it.

Abstract

The rapid technological advancements achieved in the last years have boosted the progressive identification of age-associated epigenetic changes. These studies not only contribute to shed light on the molecular basis of ageing and age-related diseases but, given the plasticity of epigenetic modifications, also provide the basis for anti-ageing interventions to counteract the onset of age-related diseases. In this review we will discuss nutritional interventions as a promising approach that can positively counteract epigenetic changes associated with ageing and promote the health for the elderly. First, we will give an overview of age-associated epigenetic signatures, focusing on DNA methylation. Then, we will report recent evidences regarding the epigenetic changes induced by nutritional interventions in the adulthood (referred as "epigenetic diets"), such as (i) caloric/dietary restriction, (ii) diet supplementation with nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and (iii) diet supplementation with bioactive food components. Attention will be drawn on the limits of current studies and the need of proper human models, such as those provided by the ongoing European project NU-AGE. Finally, we will discuss the potential impact of epigenetic diets on inflammaging and age-related diseases, focusing on cardiovascular disease, highlighting the involvement of epigenetic modifications other than DNA methylation, such as microRNA.

KEYWORDS:

Ageing; DNA methylation; Inflammaging; Nutrition; microRNAs

PMID:
24388875
DOI:
10.1016/j.mad.2013.12.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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