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Plant Sci. 2014 Feb;215-216:124-33. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2013.11.006. Epub 2013 Nov 15.

Identification of the tapetum/microspore-specific promoter of the pathogenesis-related 10 gene and its regulation in the anther of Lilium longiflorum.

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Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan.
Department of Food and Beverage Management, Tungfang Design Institute, Hunei District, Kaohsiung 82941, Taiwan.
Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan. Electronic address:


A tapetum/microspore-specific pathogenesis-related (PR) 10 gene was previously identified in lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) anthers. In situ hybridization and RNA blot analysis indicated that the lily PR10 genes are expressed specifically and differentially in the tapetum of the anther wall and in microspores during anther development. The accumulation of PR10 transcripts was exogenously induced by gibberellic acid (GA) and was suppressed by ethylene. Studies using inhibitors of GA and ethylene revealed that the lily PR10 is modulated by an antagonistic interaction between GA and ethylene. The treatment of norbornadien, an ethylene inhibitor, caused the tapetum to become densely cytoplasmic and highly polarized, whereas uniconazole, an inhibitor of GA biosynthesis, arrested tapetal development to a status close to that of control. The expression of the lily PR10g promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis was determined using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene indicated that the decisive fragment required for anther specificity is located -1183 bp to -880 bp upstream of the transcription start site. The PR10gPro::barnase transgenic lines exhibited complete male sterility because of the disruption of the tapetum and the deformation of microspore/pollen. The anther specificity of lily PR10 highlights the importance of the tapetum/microspore-specific PR10g promoter for future biotechnological and agricultural applications.


Hormone crosstalk; Microspore; Pathogenesis-related 10 (PR10); Tapetum-specific promoter

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