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BMC Vet Res. 2014 Jan 3;10:2. doi: 10.1186/1746-6148-10-2.

Resiquimod and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid formulation with aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant for foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.

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State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Animal Virology of Ministry of Agriculture, OIE/National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China.



Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists reportedly have potent antiviral and antitumor activities and may be a new kind of adjuvant for enhancing immune efficacy. Resiquimod (R848) is an imidazoquinoline compound with potent antiviral activity and functions through the TLR7/TLR8 MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] is a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA that induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the activation of NF-κB through TLR3. This study investigated the potential of R848 and poly(I:C) as an adjuvant 146S foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine formulated with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)₃).


Antibody titers to FMDV and CD8+ T cells were markedly enhanced in mice immunized to 146S FMDV + Al(OH)₃ + R848 + poly(I:C) compared with mice immunized to FMDV + ISA206. IFN-γ secretion substantially increased compared with IL-4 secretion by splenic T cells stimulated with FMDV antigens in vitro, suggesting that R848, poly(I:C), and with Al(OH)₃ together biased the immune response toward a Th1-type direction.


These results indicated that the R848 and poly(I:C) together with Al(OH)₃ enhanced humoral and cellular immune responses to immunization with 146S FMDV antigens. Thus, this new vaccine formulation can be used for FMDV prevention.

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