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ACS Nano. 2014 Feb 25;8(2):1674-80. doi: 10.1021/nn406020d. Epub 2014 Jan 7.

Low-temperature solution-processed perovskite solar cells with high efficiency and flexibility.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering and ‡California NanoSystems Institute, University of California-Los Angeles , Los Angeles, California 90095, United States.


Perovskite compounds have attracted recently great attention in photovoltaic research. The devices are typically fabricated using condensed or mesoporous TiO2 as the electron transport layer and 2,2'7,7'-tetrakis-(N,N-dip-methoxyphenylamine)9,9'-spirobifluorene as the hole transport layer. However, the high-temperature processing (450 °C) requirement of the TiO2 layer could hinder the widespread adoption of the technology. In this report, we adopted a low-temperature processing technique to attain high-efficiency devices in both rigid and flexible substrates, using device structure substrate/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3-x)Cl(x)/PCBM/Al, where PEDOT:PSS and PCBM are used as hole and electron transport layers, respectively. Mixed halide perovskite, CH(3)NH(3)PbI(3-x)Cl(x), was used due to its long carrier lifetime and good electrical properties. All of these layers are solution-processed under 120 °C. Based on the proposed device structure, power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.5% is obtained in rigid substrates (glass/ITO), and a 9.2% PCE is achieved for a polyethylene terephthalate/ITO flexible substrate.


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