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Front Microbiol. 2013 Dec 18;4:395. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00395. eCollection 2013.

The global establishment of a highly-fluoroquinolone resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky ST198 strain.

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Unité des Bactéries Pathogènes Entériques, Centre National de Référence des Escherichia coli, Shigella et Salmonella, Institut Pasteur Paris, France.
Unité des Bactéries Pathogènes Entériques, Centre National de Référence des Escherichia coli, Shigella et Salmonella, Institut Pasteur Paris, France ; Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University Minia, Egypt.
Unité Caractérisation et épidémiologie Bactérienne, Laboratoire de Sécurité des Aliments, Université Paris-Est Anses, Maisons-Alfort, France.
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Unit Antimicrobial Resistance and Resistance Determinants, National Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance, Department Biological Safety, Federal Institute for Risk Assessment Berlin, Germany.
Department of Microbiology, National Veterinary Research Institute Puławy, Poland.
National Reference Centre for Salmonellae and other Bacterial Enteric Pathogens, Robert Koch Institute Wernigerode, Germany.
Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology - Public Health, University of Sydney, ICPMR Sydney, NSW, Australia.
Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Sécurité alimentaire et Environnement Casablanca, Maroc.
Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan Ibadan, Nigeria.
Bio Chêne Vert, FINALAB Châteaubourg, France.
WHO Collaborating Center for Antimicrobial Resistance in Foodborne Pathogens and European Union Reference Laboratory for Antimicrobial Resistance, Technical University of Denmark Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Institut national de la recherche agronomique, UMR1282 Infectiologie et Santé publique Nouzilly, France ; Université François Rabelais de Tours, UMR1282 Infectiologie et Santé publique Tours, France.


While the spread of Salmonella enterica serotype Kentucky resistant to ciprofloxacin across Africa and the Middle-East has been described recently, the presence of this strain in humans, food, various animal species (livestock, pets, and wildlife) and in environment is suspected in other countries of different continents. Here, we report results of an in-depth molecular epidemiological study on a global human and non-human collection of S. Kentucky (n = 70). We performed XbaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, assessed mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions, detected β-lactam resistance mechanisms, and screened the presence of the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1). In this study, we highlight the rapid and extensive worldwide dissemination of the ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Kentucky ST198-X1-SGI1 strain since the mid-2000s in an increasingly large number of contaminated sources, including the environment. This strain has accumulated an increasing number of chromosomal and plasmid resistance determinants and has been identified in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Europe since 2010. The second substitution at position 87 in GyrA (replacing the amino acid Asp) appeared helpful for epidemiological studies to track the origin of contamination. This global study provides evidence leading to the conclusion that high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin in S. Kentucky is a simple microbiological trait that facilitates the identification of the epidemic clone of interest, ST198-X1-SGI1. Taking this into account is essential in order to detect and monitor it easily and to take rapid measures in livestock to ensure control of this infection.


MDR Salmonella dissemination; QRDR; S. Kentucky; SGI1; ST198; poultry

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