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Turk J Haematol. 2013 Sep;30(3):290-9. doi: 10.4274/Tjh.2012.0094. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Endocrinological and cardiological late effects among survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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Department of Pediatrics, Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.
Department of Pediatric Hematology, Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.
Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.
Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Dokuz Eylül University Faculty of Medicine, İzmir, Turkey.


in English, Turkish


Survival rates for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have significantly improved and late effects of therapy have been important in the follow-up of survivors. The objective of this study is to identify the endocrinological and cardiological late effects of ALL patients treated in our pediatric hematology unit.


Patients treated for ALL with BFM protocols after at least 5 years of diagnosis and not relapsed were included in the study. Endocrinological late effects (growth failure, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid gland disorders, osteopenia/osteoporosis, and pubertal disorders) and cardiological late effects were evaluated. The study group was evaluated with anthropometric measurements, body mass index, and laboratory testing of fasting glucose, insulin, serum lipids, thyroid functions, and bone mineral densities. Echocardiography and pulsed wave Doppler imaging were performed for analysis of cardiac functions.


Of the 38 ALL survivors, at least 1 adverse event occurred in 23 (60%), with 8 of them (21%) having multiple problems. Six (16%) of the survivors were obese and 8 (21%) of them were overweight. Subjects who were overweight or obese at the time of diagnosis were more likely to be overweight or obese at last follow-up. Obesity was more frequently determined in patients who were younger than 6 years of age at the time of diagnosis. Insulin resistance was observed in 8 (21%) subjects. Insulin resistance was more frequently seen in subjects who had family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hyperlipidemia was detected in 8 (21%) patients. Hypothyroidism or premature thelarche were detected in 2 children. Two survivors had osteopenia. Cardiovascular abnormalities occurred in one of the subjects with hypertension and cardiac diastolic dysfunction.


We point out the necessity of follow-up of these patients for endocrinological and cardiological late effects, since at least one adverse event occurred in most of our cases.


None declared.


Cardiotoxicity; Chemotherapy; Endocrinology; Late effects; Leukemia; childhood

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