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J Biol Chem. 2014 Apr 11;289(15):10318-29. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.526749. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

Kruppel-like transcription factor 6 regulates inflammatory macrophage polarization.

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From the Case Cardiovascular Research Institute, Department of Medicine, Harrington Heart and Vascular Institute, and.


Accumulating evidence supports the importance of macrophage plasticity in a broad spectrum of biological processes operative in health and disease. A major locus of control regulating macrophage polarization is at the transcriptional level, and several major pathways have been elucidated in recent years. In this study, we identify the Kruppel-like transcription factor 6 (KLF6) as a molecular toggle controlling macrophage speciation. KLF6 expression was robustly induced by pro-inflammatory M1 stimuli (e.g. LPS and IFN-γ) and strongly suppressed by M2 stimuli (e.g. IL4 and IL-13) in human and murine macrophages. Gain- and loss-of-function studies suggest that KLF6 is required for optimal LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, acting cooperatively with NF-κB. Furthermore, KLF6 inhibits anti-inflammatory gene expression by negatively regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression in macrophages. Collectively, these observations identify KLF6 as a novel transcriptional regulator of macrophage polarization.


Cellular Immune Response; Gene Regulation; Inflammation; Kruppel-like Transcription Factor 6; Macrophages; Transcription Regulation

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