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Acta Biomater. 2014 May;10(5):2323-32. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2013.12.040. Epub 2013 Dec 30.

Magnesium alloys as a biomaterial for degradable craniofacial screws.

Author information

1
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
2
Department of Restorative Dentistry/Comprehensive Care, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
3
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
4
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Oral Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
5
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; Department of Oral Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address: aja19@pitt.edu.

Abstract

Recently, magnesium (Mg) alloys have received significant attention as potential biomaterials for degradable implants, and this study was directed at evaluating the suitability of Mg for craniofacial bone screws. The objective was to implant screws fabricated from commercially available pure Mg and alloy AZ31 in vivo in a rabbit mandible. First, Mg and AZ31 screws were compared to stainless steel screws in an in vitro pull-out test and determined to have a similar holding strength (∼40N). A finite-element model of the screw was created using the pull-out test data, and this model can be used for future Mg alloy screw design. Then, Mg and AZ31 screws were implanted for 4, 8 and 12weeks, with two controls of an osteotomy site (hole) with no implant and a stainless steel screw implanted for 12weeks. Microcomputed tomography was used to assess bone remodeling and Mg/AZ31 degradation, both visually and qualitatively through volume fraction measurements for all time points. Histological analysis was also completed for the Mg and AZ31 at 12weeks. The results showed that craniofacial bone remodeling occurred around both Mg and AZ31 screws. Pure Mg had a different degradation profile than AZ31; however, bone growth occurred around both screw types. The degradation rate of both Mg and AZ31 screws in the bone marrow space and the muscle were faster than in the cortical bone space at 12weeks. Furthermore, it was shown that by alloying Mg, the degradation profile could be changed. These results indicate the promise of using Mg alloys for craniofacial applications.

KEYWORDS:

Biodegradable metal; Craniofacial implants; Finite-element modeling; Magnesium

PMID:
24384125
PMCID:
PMC3976705
DOI:
10.1016/j.actbio.2013.12.040
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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