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J Travel Med. 2014 Jan-Feb;21(1):6-11. doi: 10.1111/jtm.12092.

Seroepidemiology of norovirus-associated travelers' diarrhea.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; School of Public Health, Center for Infectious Diseases, Houston, TX, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of epidemic gastroenteritis, responsible for at least 50% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide and were recently identified as a leading cause of travelers' diarrhea (TD) in US and European travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India.

METHODS:

Serum and diarrheic stool samples were collected from 75 US student travelers to Cuernavaca, Mexico, who developed TD. NoV RNA was detected in acute diarrheic stool samples using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Serology assays were performed using GI.1 Norwalk virus (NV) and GII.4 Houston virus (HOV) virus-like particles (VLPs) to measure serum levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG by dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA); serum IgM was measured by capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the 50% antibody-blocking titer (BT50 ) was determined by a carbohydrate-blocking assay.

RESULTS:

NoV infection was identified in 12 (16%; 9 GI-NoV and 3 GII-NoV) of 75 travelers by either RT-PCR or fourfold or more rise in antibody titer. Significantly more individuals had detectable preexisting IgA antibodies against HOV (62/75, 83%) than against NV (49/75, 65%) (p = 0.025) VLPs. A significant difference was observed between NV- and HOV-specific preexisting IgA antibody levels (p = 0.0037), IgG (p = 0.003), and BT50 (p = <0.0001). None of the NoV-infected TD travelers had BT50  > 200, a level that has been described previously as a possible correlate of protection.

CONCLUSIONS:

We found that GI-NoVs are commonly associated with TD cases identified in US adults traveling to Mexico, and seroprevalence rates and geometric mean antibody levels to a GI-NoV were lower than to a GII-NoV strain.

PMID:
24383649
PMCID:
PMC3904865
DOI:
10.1111/jtm.12092
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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