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Circulation. 2014 Feb 25;129(8):848-54. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.005146. Epub 2013 Dec 31.

Long-term arrhythmia-free survival in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and no inducible ventricular tachycardia after myocardial infarction.

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From Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia (S.Z., A.N., G.S., A.T., S.T., D.L.R., P.K.); and the Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia (S.Z., A.T., S.T., P.K.).



A negative electrophysiology study (EPS) may delineate a subgroup of patients with severely impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) whose care can be safely managed long-term without an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.


Consecutive patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction underwent early (median 4 days) LVEF assessment. Patients with LVEF ≤40% underwent EPS. A prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted for a positive (inducible monomorphic ventricular tachycardia) but not a negative (no inducible ventricular tachycardia or inducible ventricular fibrillation/flutter) EPS result. Patients who would have become eligible for a late primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with LVEF ≤30% or ≤35% with New York Heart Association class II/III heart failure were included and analyzed according to EPS result. Patients with LVEF >40%, ineligible for EPS, were followed up as control subjects (n=1286). The primary end point was survival free of death or arrhythmia (resuscitated cardiac arrest or sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation). EPS performed in 128 patients with LVEF ≤30% or with LVEF ≤35% and heart failure was negative in 63% (n=80) and positive in 37% (n=48). Implantable-cardioverter defibrillators were implanted in <0.1%, 4%, and 90% of control, EPS-negative, and EPS-positive patients, respectively. The distribution of time to death or arrhythmia was comparable in control patients and EPS-negative patients with LVEF ≤30% or with LVEF ≤35% and heart failure (P=0.738), who both differed significantly from EPS-positive patients (P<0.001). At 3 years, 91.8 ± 3.2%, 93.4 ± 1.0%, and 62.7 ± 7.5% of control, EPS-negative, and EPS-positive patients were free of death or arrhythmia, respectively.


Revascularized patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction with severely impaired left ventricular function but no inducible ventricular tachycardia have a favorable long-term prognosis without the protection of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.


death, sudden; electrophysiology; myocardial infarction; tachycardia

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