Send to

Choose Destination
Aust Orthod J. 2013 Nov;29(2):184-92.

Paediatric sleep-disordered breathing due to upper airway obstruction in the orthodontic setting: a review.

Author information

Orthodontic Unit, School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, Australia.
Discipline of Paediatrics, The University of Adelaide, Australia.
Sleep Disorders Unit, Womens and Childrens Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.
Orthodontic Unit, School of Dentistry, The University of Adelaide, Australia.


The essential feature of paediatric sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is increased upper airway resistance during sleep presenting clinically as snoring. Paediatric SDB is a continuum ranging from primary snoring (PS), which is not associated with gas exchange abnormalities or significant sleep fragmentation, to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) with complete upper airway obstruction, hypoxaemia, and obstructive hypoventilation. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity and craniofacial disharmonies are important predisposing factors in the development and progression of paediatric SDB. Clinical symptoms are significant and domains affected include behaviour, neurocognition, cardiovascular morbidity and quality of life. Overnight polysomnography is the current diagnostic gold standard method to assess SDB severity while adenotonsillectomy is the recommended first line of treatment. Other treatments for managing paediatric SDB include nasal continuous airway pressure, the administration of nasal steroids, dentofacial orthopaedic treatment and surgery. However, there are insufficient long-term efficacy data using dentofacial orthopaedics to treat paediatric SDB. Further studies are warranted to define the characteristics of patients who may benefit most from orthodontic treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center