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World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Dec 21;19(47):9133-6. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i47.9133.

DOG1 is useful for diagnosis of KIT-negative gastrointestinal stromal tumor of stomach.

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Takuya Wada, Satoshi Tanabe, Kenji Ishido, Katsuhiko Higuchi, Tohru Sasaki, Chikatoshi Katada, Mizutomo Azuma, Akira Naruke, Myunguchul Kim, Wasaburo Koizumi, Department of Gastroenterology, Kitasato University East Hospital, Kanagawa 252-0380, Japan.


Approximately 80%-95% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) show positive staining for KIT, while the other 5%-20% show negative staining. If the tumor is negative for KIT, but is positive for CD34, a histological diagnosis is possible. However, if the tumor is negative for KIT, CD34, S-100, and SMA, a definitive diagnosis is often challenging. Recently, Discovered on GIST-1 (DOG1) has received considerable attention as a useful molecule for the diagnosis of GIST. DOG1, a membrane channel protein, is known to be overexpressed in GIST. Because the sensitivity and specificity of DOG1 are higher than those of KIT, positive staining for DOG1 has been reported, even in KIT-negative GISTs. KIT-negative GISTs most commonly arise in the stomach and are mainly characterized by epithelioid features histologically. We describe our experience with a rare case of a KIT-negative GIST of the stomach that was diagnosed by positive immunohistochemical staining for DOG1 in a patient who presented with severe anemia. Our findings suggest that immunohistochemical staining for DOG1, in addition to gene analysis, is useful for the diagnosis of KIT-negative tumors that are suspected to be GISTs.


Discovered on gastrointestinal stromal tumor-1; Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; KIT negative; Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha

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