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Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014 Jan;138(1):65-70. doi: 10.5858/arpa.2013-0015-CP.

Primary pulmonary non-small cell carcinomas: the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program confirms a significant trend toward subcategorization based upon fine-needle aspiration cytomorphology alone.

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  • 1From the Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Drs Yildiz-Aktas and Khalbuss); the Department of Pathology, Cellnetix, Everett, Washington (Dr Sturgis); the Department of Pathology, Loyola University, Maywood, Illinois (Dr Barkan); the Department of Biostatistics, College of American Pathologists, Northfield, Illinois (Ms Souers); the Department of Pathology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (Dr Fraig); the Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (Dr Laucirica); and the Department of Pathology, AmeriPath Indiana, Indianapolis (Dr Moriarty).

Abstract

Context.-Subtyping of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) is necessary for optimal patient management with specific diagnoses triggering specific molecular tests and affecting therapy. Objective.-To assess the accuracy of the participants of the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in diagnosing and subtyping NSCLC fine-needle aspiration (FNA) slides, based on morphology alone, considering preparation and participant type and trends over time. Design.-The performance of program participants was reviewed for the 5-year period spanning 2007-2011. Lung FNA challenges with reference diagnoses of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were evaluated for diagnostic concordance by using a nonlinear mixed model analysis. Results.-There were 10‚ÄČ493 pathologist and 6378 cytotechnologist responses with concordance rates of 97.4% and 97.9% for malignancy, respectively. Overall concordance rates for subcategorization were 54.6% for adenocarcinoma and 74.9% for SCC. For the exact reference diagnoses, pathologists performed better for adenocarcinoma and cytotechnologists performed better for SCC. Accurate subcategorization of adenocarcinomas significantly increased over time with 31.5% of adenocarcinomas classified as NSCLC in 2007 and 25.5% of adenocarcinomas classified as NSCLC in 2011 (P < .001). In comparing preparation types, modified Giemsa-stained smears showed the lowest overall concordance (46.8%). Modified Giemsa-stained smears with SCCs were the least likely to be accurately subcategorized (36.4%). Conclusions.-Participants are proficient at interpreting NSCLCs as malignant by FNA but are less successful at subcategorization with cytomorphology alone. During the study period, a statistically significant trend was confirmed toward greater accuracy of subcategorization of adenocarcinomas, suggesting that participants are cognizant of the impact that more specific cytomorphologic interpretations have in directing molecular triage and therapy.

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