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Virus Res. 2014 Jun 24;186:38-46. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2013.12.012. Epub 2013 Dec 26.

A non-persistently transmitted-virus induces a pull-push strategy in its aphid vector to optimize transmission and spread.

Author information

1
Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias (ICA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo, E-28006 Madrid, Spain.
2
Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias (ICA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Serrano 115 dpdo, E-28006 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: a.fereres@csic.es.

Abstract

Plant viruses are known to modify the behaviour of their insect vectors, both directly and indirectly, generally adapting to each type of virus-vector relationship in a way that enhances transmission efficiency. Here, we report results of three different studies showing how a virus transmitted in a non-persistent (NP) manner (Cucumber mosaic virus; CMV, Cucumovirus) can induce changes in its host plant, cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Marumba) that modifies the behaviour of its aphid vector (Aphis gossypii Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a way that enhances virus transmission and spread non-viruliferous aphids changed their alighting, settling and probing behaviour activities over time when exposed to CMV-infected and mock-inoculated cucumber plants. Aphids exhibited no preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants at short time intervals (1, 10 and 30 min after release), but showed a clear shift in preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants 60 min after release. Our free-choice preference assays showed that A. gossypii alates preferred CMV-infected over mock-inoculated plants at an early stage (30 min), but this behaviour was reverted at a later stage and aphids preferred to settle and reproduce on mock-inoculated plants. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique revealed a sharp change in aphid probing behaviour over time when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At the beginning (first 15 min) aphid vectors dramatically increased the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At a later stage (second hour of recording) aphids diminished their feeding on CMV-infected plants as indicated by much less time spent in phloem salivation and ingestion (E1 and E2). This particular probing behaviour including an early increase in the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures followed by a phloem feeding deterrence is known to enhance the transmission efficiency of viruses transmitted in a NP manner. We conclude that CMV induces specific changes in a plant host that modify the alighting, settling and probing behaviour of its main vector A. gossypii, leading to optimum transmission and spread of the virus. Our findings should be considered when modelling the spread of viruses transmitted in a NP manner.

KEYWORDS:

Aphis gossypii; Cucumber mosaic virus; Disease epidemics; Electrical penetration graph; Feeding behaviour; Non-persistent virus transmission

PMID:
24373951
DOI:
10.1016/j.virusres.2013.12.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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