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Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2014 Feb;204:1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2013.12.001. Epub 2013 Dec 14.

Total Gaussian curvature, drop shapes and the range of applicability of drop shape techniques.

Author information

1
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada.
2
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada. Electronic address: neumann@mie.utoronto.ca.

Abstract

Drop shape techniques are used extensively for surface tension measurement. It is well-documented that, as the drop/bubble shape becomes close to spherical, the performance of all drop shape techniques deteriorates. There have been efforts quantifying the range of applicability of drop techniques by studying the deviation of Laplacian drops from the spherical shape. A shape parameter was introduced in the literature and was modified several times to accommodate different drop constellations. However, new problems arise every time a new configuration is considered. Therefore, there is a need for a universal shape parameter applicable to pendant drops, sessile drops, liquid bridges as well as captive bubbles. In this work, the use of the total Gaussian curvature in a unified approach for the shape parameter is introduced for that purpose. The total Gaussian curvature is a dimensionless quantity that is commonly used in differential geometry and surface thermodynamics, and can be easily calculated for different Laplacian drop shapes. The new definition of the shape parameter using the total Gaussian curvature is applied here to both pendant and constrained sessile drops as an illustration. The analysis showed that the new definition is superior and reflects experimental results better than previous definitions, especially at extreme values of the Bond number.

KEYWORDS:

ADSA; Constrained sessile drops; Drop shape techniques; Pendant drops; Shape parameter; Surface tension measurements; Total Gaussian curvature

PMID:
24373931
DOI:
10.1016/j.cis.2013.12.001
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