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Trends Cogn Sci. 2014 Feb;18(2):90-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2013.11.005. Epub 2013 Dec 25.

The what, when, where, and how of visual word recognition.

Author information

1
Basque Center for Cognition, Brain, and Language, San Sebastian, Spain; IKERBASQUE Basque Foundation for Science, San Sebastian, Spain. Electronic address: m.carreiras@bcbl.eu.
2
Basque Center for Cognition, Brain, and Language, San Sebastian, Spain.
3
Basque Center for Cognition, Brain, and Language, San Sebastian, Spain; Universitat de València, València, Spain.
4
Basque Center for Cognition, Brain, and Language, San Sebastian, Spain; The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel; Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, USA.

Abstract

A long-standing debate in reading research is whether printed words are perceived in a feedforward manner on the basis of orthographic information, with other representations such as semantics and phonology activated subsequently, or whether the system is fully interactive and feedback from these representations shapes early visual word recognition. We review recent evidence from behavioral, functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, and biologically plausible connectionist modeling approaches, focusing on how each approach provides insight into the temporal flow of information in the lexical system. We conclude that, consistent with interactive accounts, higher-order linguistic representations modulate early orthographic processing. We also discuss how biologically plausible interactive frameworks and coordinated empirical and computational work can advance theories of visual word recognition and other domains (e.g., object recognition).

KEYWORDS:

computational modeling; feedback versus feedforward information; neural connectivity; orthographic processing; visual word form area; visual word recognition

PMID:
24373885
DOI:
10.1016/j.tics.2013.11.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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