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Dev Growth Differ. 2014 Jan;56(1):46-52. doi: 10.1111/dgd.12110. Epub 2013 Dec 27.

Gene targeting technologies in rats: zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.

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Institute of Laboratory Animals, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Japan.


The laboratory rat has been widely used as an animal model in biomedical science for more than 150 years. Applying zinc-finger nucleases or transcription activator-like effector nucleases to rat embryos via microinjection is an efficient genome editing tool for generating targeted knockout rats. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated endonucleases have been used as an effective tool for precise and multiplex genome editing in mice and rats. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of these site-specific nuclease technologies for genetic analysis and manipulation in rats are discussed.


clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; genome-editing; rats; transcription activator-like effector nucleases; zinc-finger nucleases

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