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Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:403491. doi: 10.1155/2013/403491. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

In vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo acute and chronic toxicity of Xanthii Fructus and its processed product.

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Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China.


Xanthii Fructus (XF), the fruit of Xanthium sibiricum Patr., was used in the treatment of rhinitis and related nasal disease. Adverse effects of Xanthii Fructus are frequently reported these years. In the paper, in vitro renal cytotoxicity and in vivo acute and chronic toxicity researches of Xanthii Fructus (XF) and its processed product (processed Xanthii Fructus (PXF)) were carried out. Water extraction of XF displayed no cell membrane damage effects even in the highest concentration (100 μg/mL); however, it might affect the function of renal cell mitochondria. Acute toxicities were observed only in high and middle dosage groups. Fortunately, the single dose administration of XF or PXF was safe even at the highest daily dosage. Twelve-week chronic toxicity assays were performed in SD rats with low, middle, and high dosage. Notable changes in body weight and blood cell and BUN and Scr changes sporadically occurred in middle and high groups after the 9th week. Serum HA and HPCIII values were sustained increasing from the 4th week to the 8th week in Group V male rats, which indicated that the renal fibrosis risks still existed although no fibrosis was found in the pathological examination of the liver and kidney.

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