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Acta Diabetol. 2014;51(3):499-503. doi: 10.1007/s00592-013-0545-z. Epub 2013 Dec 27.

Parental sleep quality and continuous glucose monitoring system use in children with type 1 diabetes.

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Pediatric Endocrine and Diabetes Service, E. Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, 58100, Israel,


To compare sleep quality and sleep-wake patterns in parents of children with type 1 diabetes before routine use of the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and while using it. Thirteen parents completed the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), a 7-day sleep diary, and wore an actigraph (a wristwatch-size motion detector) during the night for 1 week before pediatric use of CGMS and 4-8 weeks after initiating routine use of the CGMS. Mean age of parents (ten mothers, three fathers) was 39 (range 32-47) years; mean age of children was 9.3 years (range 5.5-16.5 years); mean disease duration was 3.4 (range 0.6-11.2) years. PSQI total score demonstrated similar quality of sleep with and without use of the CGMS (4.6 and 4.9, respectively, p = 0.45). Six of the 13 parents reported severe sleep problems (PSQI ≥ 5) with and without the CGMS. The sleep diary indicated a greater number of awakening episodes during CGMS use than without the CGMS (1.6 and 1, respectively, p = 0.03), and actigraphy documented an increase in the number of wake bouts (22.9 and 19.7, p = 0.03) as well as in total wake time (48.3 and 42.2 min, p = 0.03) during CGMS use as compared with the period prior to CGMS use. Although self-perception of sleep quality remained unchanged, CGMS use appeared to affect actual parental sleep continuity somewhat negatively. This should be made clear to parents who may hold expectations of improvement in sleep quality following initiation of CGMS use.

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