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J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2014 Feb 1;947-948:17-22. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.11.060. Epub 2013 Dec 6.

A sensitive and fast method for trihalomethanes in urine using gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

Author information

1
Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus.
2
Cyprus International Institute for Environmental and Public Health in Association with Harvard School of Public Health, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus. Electronic address: konstantinos.makris@cut.ac.cy.

Abstract

Because of the plethora of exposure sources and routes through which humans are exposed to trihalomethanes (THM), the limitation of their short half-lives could be overcome, if a highly sensitive method was available to quantify urinary THM concentrations at sub-ppb levels. The objective of this study was to develop a fast and reliable method for the determination of the four THM analytes in human urine. A sensitive methodology was developed for THM in urine samples using gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) promoting its use in epidemiological and biomonitoring studies. The proposed methodology enjoys limits of detection similar to those reported in the literature (11-80 ng L(-1)) and the advantages of small initial urine volumes (15 mL) and fast analysis per sample (12 min) when compared with other methods. This is the first report using GC-QqQ-MS/MS for the determination of THM in urine samples. Because of its simplicity and less time-consuming nature, the proposed method could be incorporated into detailed (hundreds of participants' urine samples) exposure assessment protocols providing valuable insight into the dose-response relationship of THM and cancer or pregnancy anomalies.

KEYWORDS:

BDCM; Chlorine; DBCM; DBP; Disinfection by products; EI; Exposure; FMU; GC–QqQ-MS/MS; HS; MRM; MTBE; Mass spectrometry; SPME; TBM; TCM; THM; Trihalomethanes; Urine; bromodichloromethane; dibromochloromethane; disinfection by-products; electron impact ionization; first morning void urine; gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry; headspace; multi reaction monitoring; solid phase micro extraction; t-butyl methyl ether; tribromomethane; trichloromethane; trihalomethanes

PMID:
24370554
DOI:
10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.11.060
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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