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Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Apr;24(4):370-7. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2013.09.020. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Protective role of the Mediterranean diet on several cardiovascular risk factors: evidence from Sicily, southern Italy.

Author information

1
Department of G.F. Ingrassia, Section of Hygiene and Public Health, University of Catania, Catania, Italy; Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Population Studies, Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Medical Care, Jagellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.
3
Department of G.F. Ingrassia, Section of Hygiene and Public Health, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. Electronic address: anmist@unict.it.
4
Department of G.F. Ingrassia, Section of Hygiene and Public Health, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
5
Provincial Health Authority of Catania, Catania, Italy.
6
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
7
Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Section of Pharmacology and Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
8
Department of Food Science, "Federico II" University Medical School, Naples, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Epidemiological studies conducted in European countries demonstrated that the adoption of a Mediterranean diet protect against clustered risk factors but those evaluating such benefits specifically in southern Italy are scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the association between the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk factors obesity, diabetes, and hypertension.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

A cross-sectional population-based survey including 3090 subjects was conducted in Sicily, southern Italy. Food intake was evaluated through a validated food frequency questionnaire and adherence to the dietary pattern was assessed using the MedDietScore. Linear and logistic regression models were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and respective confidence intervals (CIs). After adjusting for confounding factors such as age and gender, participants in the highest tertile of the MedDietScore were less likely to be obese (OR 0.35, 95% CI: 0.24-0.51), hypertensive (OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55-0.97), and diabetic (OR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.24-0.77). Linear inverse relation between the MedDietScore and BMI (r(2) = 0.34, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r(2) = 0.17, P < 0.001), and waist-to-hip ratio (r(2) = 0.06, P < 0.001) was found.

CONCLUSION:

Despite the prevalence rates of nutrition-related diseases are high in Sicily, greater adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is still associated with a better health status.

KEYWORDS:

Body mass index; Cardiovascular risk factors; Hypertension; Mediterranean diet; Obesity

PMID:
24370449
DOI:
10.1016/j.numecd.2013.09.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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