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J Ophthalmol. 2013;2013:895147. doi: 10.1155/2013/895147. Epub 2013 Dec 4.

Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: review and update.

Author information

1
Department of Ophthalmology, San Pedro Hospital, Carretera de Piqueras 98, 26006 Logroño, Spain ; RETICS Oftared, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Reina Sofia General University Hospital, Avenida Intendente Jorge Palacios 1, 30003 Murcia, Spain ; Department of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, 301000 Murcia, Spain ; Ophthalmic Research Unit "Santiago Grisolía," Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
3
RETICS Oftared, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain ; Department of Ophthalmology, University Clinic of Navarra, Avenida de Pio XII 36, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.
4
Ophthalmic Research Unit "Santiago Grisolía," Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain ; Department of Ophthalmology, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Carretera Bulevar Sur, 46026 Valencia, Spain.
5
Ophthalmic Research Unit "Santiago Grisolía," Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
6
RETICS Oftared, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain ; Ophthalmic Research Unit "Santiago Grisolía," Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain ; Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
7
RETICS Oftared, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain ; Gómez-Ulla Institute of Ophthalmology, Calla Maruxa Mallo 3, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain ; University of Santiago de Compostela, Carretera San Francisco, 15705 Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
8
Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA ; Vitreoretinal Division, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyhad 12329, Saudi Arabia.
9
RETICS Oftared, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain ; Department of Ophthalmology, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Carretera Bulevar Sur, 46026 Valencia, Spain ; Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain.
10
RETICS Oftared, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain ; Ophthalmic Research Unit "Santiago Grisolía," Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibanez 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain ; Department of Ophthalmology, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Carretera Bulevar Sur, 46026 Valencia, Spain.

Abstract

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the main socioeconomical health issues worldwide. AMD has a multifactorial etiology with a variety of risk factors. Smoking is the most important modifiable risk factor for AMD development and progression. The present review summarizes the epidemiological studies evaluating the association between smoking and AMD, the mechanisms through which smoking induces damage to the chorioretinal tissues, and the relevance of advising patients to quit smoking for their visual health.

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