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J Forensic Leg Med. 2014 Jan;21:60-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2013.10.016. Epub 2013 Nov 5.

Forensic interlaboratory evaluation of the ForFLUID kit for vaginal fluids identification.

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University of Rome "Foro Italico", Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Public Health Unit, P.zza L. De Bosis, 6, 00135 Rome, Italy.
Sezione di Medicina Legale, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Sanità Pubblica, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Conca - Torrette, 60126 Ancona, Italy.
Carabinieri, Reparto Investigazioni Scientifiche di Roma, V.le di Tor di Quinto, 119, 00191 Roma, Italy.
Department of Forensic Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, South Korea.
National Institute of Criminalistics and Criminology, Vilvoordsesteenweg 100, 1120 Brussel, Belgium.
Department of Genetics, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter stny. 1/C, Hungary; GenoID - Forensic DNA Laboratory, H-1023, Budapest, Lajos utca 28-32, Hungary.
Universität Zürich, Institut für Rechtsmedizin, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.
Institute of Biology and Medical Genetics of the First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital in Prague, Charles University in Prague, Albertov 4, Praha 2 128 00, Czech Republic.
Department of Forensic Sciences, The George Washington University, 2100 Foxhall Road NW, Washington, DC 20007, USA.
Molecular Digital Diagnostics (MDD) s.r.l., Via de Lellis, 01100 Viterbo, Italy.
University of Rome "Foro Italico", Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, Public Health Unit, P.zza L. De Bosis, 6, 00135 Rome, Italy. Electronic address:


Identification of vaginal fluids is an important step in the process of sexual assaults confirmation. Advances in both microbiology and molecular biology defined technical approaches allowing the discrimination of body fluids. These protocols are based on the identification of specific bacterial communities by microfloraDNA (mfDNA) amplification. A multiplex real time-PCR assay (ForFLUID kit) has been developed for identifying biological fluids and for discrimination among vaginal, oral and fecal samples. In order to test its efficacy and reliability of the assay in the identification of vaginal fluids, an interlaboratory evaluation has been performed on homogeneous vaginal swabs. All the involved laboratories were able to correctly recognize all the vaginal swabs, and no false positives were identified when the assay was applied on non-vaginal samples. The assay represents an useful molecular tool that can be easily adopted by forensic geneticists involved in vaginal fluid identification.


Bacteria; Forensic; Interlaboratory evaluation; Multiplex PCR; Vaginal fluids; mfDNA

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