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Gene. 2014 Mar 1;537(1):70-8. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.12.021. Epub 2013 Dec 21.

Spermidine alleviates the growth of saline-stressed ginseng seedlings through antioxidative defense system.

Author information

1
Department of Oriental Medicinal Materials and Processing, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Suwon 446-701, South Korea.
2
Applied Plant Biotechnology, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 South Korea. Electronic address: mpizlee@jnu.ac.kr.
3
Department of Oriental Medicinal Materials and Processing, College of Life Science, Kyung Hee University, Suwon 446-701, South Korea. Electronic address: dcyang@khu.ac.kr.

Abstract

Protective effects of exogenous spermidine (Spd), activity of antioxygenic enzymes, and levels of free radicals in a well-known medicinal plant, Panax ginseng was examined. Seedlings grown in salinized nutrient solution (150 mM NaCl) for 7d exhibited reduced relative water content, plant growth, increased free radicals, and showing elevated lipid peroxidation. Application of Spd (0.01, 0.1, and 1mM) to the salinized nutrient solution showed increased plant growth by preventing chlorophyll degradation and increasing PA levels, as well as antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, APX, and GPX activity in the seedlings of ginseng. During salinity stress, Spd was effective for lowering the accumulation of putrescine (Put), with a significant increase in the spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) levels in the ginseng seedlings. A decline in the Put level ran parallel to the higher accumulation of proline (Pro), and exogenous Spd also resulted in the alleviation of Pro content under salinity. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide (O2(-)) production rates were also reduced in stressed plants after Spd treatment. Furthermore, the combined effect of Spd and salt led to a significant increase in diamine oxidase (DAO), and subsequent decline in polyamine oxidase (PAO). These positive effects were observed in 0.1 and 1mM Spd concentrations, but a lower concentration (0.01 mM) had a very limited effect. In summary, application of exogenous Spd could enhance salt tolerance of P. ginseng by enhancing the activities of enzyme scavenging system, which influence the intensity of oxidative stress.

KEYWORDS:

(APX); (ASC); (CAT); (Diamine oxidase); (GPX); (GSH); (ODC); (Polyamine oxidase); (Polyamine); (Proline); (Putrescine); (Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction); (SOD); (Spermidine); (Spermine); (reactive oxygen species); Ascorbate peroxidase; Ascorbic acid; Catalase; DAO; Ginseng; Glutathione; Guaiacol peroxidase; PA; PAO; Polyamines; Pro; Proline; Put; ROS; RT-PCR; Salt stress; Spd; Spermidine synthase; Spm; Superoxide dismutase; ornithine decarboxylase

PMID:
24365592
DOI:
10.1016/j.gene.2013.12.021
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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