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Int J Artif Organs. 2013 Dec;36(12):845-52. doi: 10.5301/ijao.5000283. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration using a phosphate-containing replacement fluid in the setting of regional citrate anticoagulation.

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Department of Nephrology and Urology, Hemodialysis Unit, Umberto I, Policlinico di Roma, "Sapienza" University, Rome - Italy.



The need for prolonged anticoagulation and the occurrence of hypophosphatemia are well known drawbacks of continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT). The aim was to evaluate the effects on acid-base status and serum phosphate of a regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) protocol for continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) combining the use of citrate with a phosphate-containing replacement fluid.


In a small cohort of heart surgery patients undergoing CRRT for acute kidney injury, we adopted an RCA-CVVH protocol based on a commercially available citrate solution (18 mmol/l) combined with a recently introduced phosphate-containing replacement fluid (HCO3 -30 mmol/l, phosphate 1.2), aimed at preventing phosphate depletion.


In 10 high bleeding-risk patients, the RCA-CVVH protocol provided an adequate circuit lifetime (46.8 ± 30.3 h) despite the adoption of a low citrate dose and a higher than usual target circuit Ca2+ (≤0.5 mmol/l). Acid-base status was adequately maintained without the need for additional interventions on RCA-CVVH parameters and without indirect sign of citrate accumulation [(pH 7.43 (7.41-7.47), bicarbonate 24.4 mmol/l (23.2-25.6), BE 0 (-1.5 to 1.1), calcium ratio 1.97 (1.82-2.01); median (IQR)]. Serum phosphate was steadily maintained in a narrow range throughout RCA-CVVH days [1.1 mmol/l (0.9-1.4)]. A low amount of phosphorus supplementation (0.9 ± 2 g/day) was required in only 30% of patients.


Although needing further evaluation, the proposed RCA-CVVH protocol ensured a safe and effective RCA without electrolyte and/or acid-base derangements. CRRT-induced hypophosphatemia was prevented in most of the patients by the adoption of a phosphate-containing replacement solution, minimizing phosphate supplementation needs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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