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Acta Trop. 2014 Mar;131:104-10. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.12.004. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)-Barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida.

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Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA. Electronic address:
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Institute for Medical Research Israel-Canada, Kuvin Centre for the Study of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa 34995, Israel.
United States Department of Agriculture-ARS-Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
Anastasia Mosquito Control District, St. Augustine, FL, USA.
Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.
Bavarian Natural History Collections (Staatliche Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Bayerns, SNSB), Munich, Germany; Bavarian State Collection of Zoology (ZSM), Munich, Germany.


The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: >70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Aedes. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and >50% reduction for Anopheles crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Culex erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin American countries.


Anopheles crucians; Eugenol; Integrated vector control; Oral insecticide; Sugar feeding

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