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Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2013 Nov;122(11):717-24.

Reliability and validity of the Italian Eating Assessment Tool.

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L. Sacco Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Milan, Italy.
L. Sacco Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University of Milan, Italy.
Unit of Nutritional Therapy, INRCA-IRCCS, Ancona, Italy.
Società Italiana di Nutrizione Artificiale e Metabolismo, Milan, Italy.



We sought to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Italian EAT-10 (Italian Eating Assessment Tool; I-EAT-10).


The study consisted of 4 phases: item generation, internal consistency and reliability analysis, normative data generation, and validity analysis. Discussion of the EAT-10 with 30 patients and its back-translation were accomplished. The recruited population included 172 patients (40 with dysphonia and 132 with dysphagia) and 269 asymptomatic subjects for testing of internal consistency, and 94 patients with dysphagia and 158 asymptomatic subjects for test-retest reliability analysis. Normative data were gathered from the 269 subjects. The scores of patients and asymptomatic subjects were compared. The I-EAT-10 and flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) scores in 94 patients were correlated. The I-EAT-10 scores made before and after successful swallowing rehabilitation in 38 patients were compared.


Excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha values of 0.90 and 0.93) and strong test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.95 and 0.98) were found in patients and asymptomatic subjects. The I-EAT-10 mean (+/- SD) score of the normal cohort was 0.6 +/- 1.1. The asymptomatic subjects and dysphonic patients scored lower than the dysphagic patients on the Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.001). The I-EAT-10 and FEES scores were mildly correlated. The mean I-EAT-10 score improved from 9.8 +/- 10.3 to 5.8 +/- 6.7 after swallowing rehabilitation (p = 0.04).


The I-EAT-10 is a reliable, valid, symptom-specific outcome tool.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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