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Clin Nephrol. 2014 Jan;81(1):1-8.

Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease as risk factors of osteoporosis.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine.



Osteoporosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and is often accompanied by metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We demonstrated the relationship among MetS, CKD and osteoporosis, and investigated the roles of MetS and CKD in the occurrence of osteoporosis in a healthy Korean population.


The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modification of diet in renal disease study equation. The diagnosis of MetS was made according to the updated guidelines from the American Heart Association/ National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Bone mineral density (BMD) values were measured. A decreased BMD level was defined as either osteopenia or osteoporosis.


The subjects comprised 38.9% men and 61.1% women; 6.6% had CKD, 19.4% had MetS, and 12.2% had osteoporosis. In females, the prevalence of MetS and CKD was higher in those with decreased BMD (p = 0.034 and p = 0.114, respectively). The risks for decreased BMD increased with fewer MetS components and lower eGFR in a simple logistic analysis. However, the correlation disappeared when adjusted for age. In males, the prevalence of MetS and CKD was lower in decreased BMD (p = 0.034 and p = 0.157, respectively). Both the presence of MetS components and lower eGFR had protective effects on BMD values in simple and multiple logistic analyses.


In females, decreased BMD was positively related with both MetS and CKD. But, this relationship was not seen by adjustment for age. In males, lower BMD was negatively related to both MetS and CKD in unadjusted and adjusted models.

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