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J Perinatol. 2014 Feb;34(2):87-94. doi: 10.1038/jp.2013.161. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Acute pancreatitis during pregnancy: a review.

Author information

1
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Centre Hospitalier Departemental, La Roche sur Yon, France.
2
1] Pôle des Maladies de l'Appareil Digestif, Service de Gastroentérologie-Pancréatologie, Hôpital Beaujon, AP-HP, Clichy, France [2] Inserm U773-CRB3, Université Paris-Diderot, Clichy, France.
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hôpital Beaujon, AP-HP, Université Paris-Diderot, Clichy, France.

Abstract

This article aims to draw together recent thinking on pregnancy and acute pancreatitis (AP), with a particular emphasis on pregnancy complications, birth outcomes and management of AP during pregnancy contingent on the etiology. AP during pregnancy is a rare but severe disease with a high maternal-fetal mortality, which has recently decreased thanks to earlier diagnosis and some maternal and neonatal intensive care improvement. AP usually occurs during the third trimester or the early postpartum period. The most common causes of AP are gallstones (65 to 100%), alcohol abuse and hypertriglyceridemia. Although the diagnostic criteria for AP are not specific for pregnant patients, Ranson and Balthazar criteria are used to evaluate the severity and treat AP during pregnancy. The fetal risks from AP during pregnancy are threatened preterm labor, prematurity and in utero fetal death. In cases of acute biliary pancreatitis during pregnancy, a consensual strategy could be adopted according to the gestational age, and taking in consideration the high risk of recurrence of AP (70%) with conservative treatment and the specific risks of each treatment. This could include: conservative treatment in first trimester and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in second trimester. During the third trimester, conservative treatment or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in early postpartum period are recommended. A multidisciplinary approach, including gastroenterologists and obstetricians, seems to be the key in making the best choice for the management of AP during pregnancy.

PMID:
24355941
DOI:
10.1038/jp.2013.161
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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