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Exp Parasitol. 2014 Feb;137:46-52. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2013.12.004. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

Development of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Giardia and analysis of the prevalence, cyst shedding and genotypes of Giardia present in sheep across four states in Australia.

Author information

1
School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia.
2
South Australian Research and Development Institute, 33 Flemington Street, Glenside, SA 5065, Australia.
3
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Melbourne, 250 Princes Highway, Werribee, Victoria 3030, Australia.
4
School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6150, Australia. Electronic address: Una.Ryan@murdoch.edu.au.

Erratum in

  • Exp Parasitol. 2016 Mar;162:65.

Abstract

A novel quantitative PCR (qPCR) for Giardia at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) locus was developed and validated. The qPCR was used to screen a total of 3412 lamb faecal samples collected from approximately 1189 lambs at three sampling periods (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms across South Australia (SA), New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (Vic) and Western Australia (WA). The overall prevalence was 20.2% (95% CI 18.9-21.6) and of the 690 positives, 473 were successfully typed. In general, the prevalence of Giardia varied widely across the different farms with the highest prevalence in one WA farm (42.1%) at pre-slaughter sampling and the lowest prevalence in one Victorian farm (7.2%) at weaning. The range of cyst shedding at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter overall across all states was 63-1.3×10(9) cysts g(-1) (median=1.7×10(4)), 63-1.1×10(9) cysts g(-1) (median=9.6×10(3)), 63-4.7×10(9) cysts g(-1) (median=8.1×10(4)) respectively. Assemblage specific primers at the triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) locus identified assemblage A in 22.4% (106/473) of positive samples typed, assemblage E in 75.9% (359/473) and mixed A and E assemblages in 1.7% (8/473) of samples. A subset of representative samples from the 8 farms (n=32) were typed at both the gdh and beta-giardin loci and confirmed these results and identified sub-assemblage AII in 16 representative assemblage A isolates across the 8 farms. This demonstrates a prevalence of Giardia previously not recognised in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research to quantify the production impacts of this protozoan parasite.

KEYWORDS:

Assemblage A and E; Beta-giardin; Giardia; Lambs; gdh; qPCR; tpi

PMID:
24355868
DOI:
10.1016/j.exppara.2013.12.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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