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J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2013 Dec 19;12(1):47. doi: 10.1186/2251-6581-12-47.

Ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: frequency and clinical characteristics.

Author information

1
Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111, Benin City, Nigeria. alpndiony@yahoo.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening acute complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Although the frequency of DKA as first manifestation of T1DM is higher in developing compared developed countries, there is paucity of information on its characteristics in developing countries.

METHODS:

This retrospective study determined the frequency of ketoacidosis at diagnosis of new-onset type 1 diabetes and described the clinical characteristics of the patients seen between 1996 and 2011 by auditing the hospital records of all cases. The diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was based on the presence of hyperglycaemia (blood glucose > 11 mmol/L), acidosis (serum bicarbonate < 15 mmol/L) and ketonuria (urine ketone ≥1+).

RESULTS:

At diagnosis of new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus, three-quarter (77.1%) of the children and adolescents presented with DKA. Comparing the frequency of DKA during the initial 8 years (1996-2003) with the later 8 years (2004-2011), it was 81.8% vs 73.1%; p > 005. The frequency has not shown any significant declined over a 16-year period. The frequency of re-admission in ketoacidosis was 24.3%.

CONCLUSION:

Three-quarter of children and adolescents present with DKA as first manifestation of T1DM with no significant decline in frequency over a 16-year period in our hospital.

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