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J Pharm Pharmacol. 2014 Mar;66(3):466-76. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12179. Epub 2013 Dec 10.

Hizikia fusiformis fractions successfully improve atopic dermatitis indices in anti-CD3-stimulated splenocytes and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-treated BALB/c mice.

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Department of Marine Molecular Biotechnology, College of Life Science, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangwon, Korea.



In the present study, we aimed to examine whether fractions from an edible sea weed, Hizikia fusiformis, had immunomodulatory effects, particularly an anti-atopic effect, by attenuating the expression of T cell-dependent cytokines using in-vitro and in-vivo animal atopic dermatitis-like models.


The anti-atopic activities were examined in in vitro, and a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis-like mouse model using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, electrophoretic-mobility shift and histopathological analysis.


Our results showed that the final fraction (F2') of H. fusiformis contained a higher amount of butanoic acid which was not found in the other fractions, and effectively inhibited T cell activation by inhibiting dephosphorylation of nuclear factor of activated T cells in electrophoretic-mobility shift assay. As a consequence, helper T cell-dependent cytokines, such as interleukin-2, -4 and interferon-γ, were significantly inhibited while activated with an anti-CD3 antibody. We also showed that skin challenged with DNCB successfully recovered when treated with 2.5 mg/kg, comparable to that by 0.25% prednicarbate. These results indicate that F2' may contribute to inhibit T cell activation by eliminating Th cell-dependent cytokines.


Taken together, we concluded that F2' containing butanoic acid may be a new functional anti-atopic candidate, which probably acts through nuclear factor of activated T cell inactivation mechanisms.


2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene; Hizikia fusiformis; atopic dermatitis; butanoic acid; helper T cell

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