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J Adv Prosthodont. 2013 Nov;5(4):485-93. doi: 10.4047/jap.2013.5.4.485. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Bond strength of veneer ceramic and zirconia cores with different surface modifications after microwave sintering.

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Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.



To evaluate the effects of surface treatments on shear bond strength (SBS) between microwave and conventionally sintered zirconia core/veneers.


96 disc shaped Noritake Alliance zirconia specimens were fabricated using YenaDent CAM unit and were divided in 2 groups with respect to microwave or conventional methods (n=48/group). Surface roughness (Ra) evaluation was made with a profilometer on randomly selected microwave (n=10) and conventionally sintered (n=10) cores. Specimens were then assessed into 4 subgroups according to surface treatments applied (n=12/group). Groups for microwave (M) and conventionally (C) sintered core specimens were as follows; MC,CC: untreated (control group), M1,C1:Al2O3 sandblasting, M2,C2:liner, M3,C3:Al2O3 sandblasting followed by liner. Veneer ceramic was fired on zirconia cores and specimens were thermocycled (6000 cycles between 5°-55℃). All specimens were subjected to SBS test using a universal testing machine at 0.5 mm/min, failure were evaluated under an optical microscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Shapiro Wilk, Levene, Post-hoc Tukey HSD and Student's t tests, Two-Way-Variance-Analysis and One-Way-Variance-Analysis (α=.05).


Conventionally sintered specimens (1.06 ± 0.32 µm) showed rougher surfaces compared to microwave sintered ones (0.76 ± 0.32 µm)(P=.046), however, no correlation was found between SBS and surface roughness (r=-0.109, P=.658). The statistical comparison of the shear bond strengths of C3 and C1 group (P=.015); CC and MC group (P=.004) and C3 and M3 group presented statistically higher (P=.005) values. While adhesive failure was not seen in any of the groups, cohesive and combined patterns were seen in all groups.


Based on the results of this in-vitro study, Al2O3- sandblasting followed by liner application on conventionally sintered zirconia cores may be preferred to enhance bond strength.


Al2O3 sandblasting; Chipping; Liner; Microwave sintered zirconia; Optical microscope; Shear bond strength

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