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Pak J Med Sci. 2013 Sep;29(5):1099-104.

Risk factors and mortality among newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension.

Author information

1
Dr. Athar Razzaq,MBBS, FCPS, Trainee Fellow in Neonatal Pediatrics, The Children Hospital &Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan.
2
Dr. Ahmed Iqbal Quddusi,MBBS, FCPS, Head of Neonatal Pediatrics, Warden's House, Rafia Hall, Girls Hostel, Nishter Medical College, Multan, Pakistan.
3
Dr. Naila Nizami,MBBS, FCPS, Trainee Fellow in Neonatal Pediatrics, The Children Hospital &Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the risk factors for persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborns (PPHN) and their influence on mortality.

METHODS:

This was an observational study conducted at The Children's Hospital & the Institute of Child Health, Multan, Pakistan, from July 2011 to June 2012.All admitted babies who had respiratory distress, cyanosis and evidence of hypoxia on ABG,s were diagnosed provided that they were having right- to- left or bidirectional hemodynamic shunting at the ductus arteriosus or at patent foramen ovale along with Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) jet >40 mm of Hg on echocardiography. All the demographic, maternal, antenatal, natal and postnatal data were recorded on a predesigned Performa.

RESULTS:

There were 79 patients, including 61 males and 18 females. The most common risk factors observed in our study were male sex (72.1%), cesarean section mode of delivery (54.2%), positive pressure ventilation while resuscitation (44.2%) birth asphyxia (40.4%) and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)35.4%. It was found that male sex (88.8%), cesarean-section delivery (77.7%), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) 44.8% and sepsis (44.4%) were more associated with PPHN in premature infants than with term and post term infants. Out of the total 79 patients, death occurred among 7 preterm and 14 terms and post term infants. As a whole, cesarean section mode of delivery (71.4%), birth asphyxia (57.1%) and female sex (52.4%) were found major risk factors associated with mortality. However, respiratory distress syndrome (Relative Risk RR=5), birth asphyxia (RR=2.5) and male sex (RR=2)were found to be associated with increased risk of mortality in preterm than term and post term infants.

CONCLUSION:

Male gender, cesarean section mode of delivery, MAS and RDS are the major risk factors for PPHN in any age group. RDS, Birth asphyxia and male sex are associated with increased risk of mortality in pre term than term and post term infants.

KEYWORDS:

Birth asphyxia; Meconium aspiration syndrome; Persistent pulmonary hypertension

PMID:
24353699
PMCID:
PMC3858931

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