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Inflamm Res. 2014 Apr;63(4):287-97. doi: 10.1007/s00011-013-0699-8. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Intracranial injection of recombinant stromal-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) attenuates traumatic brain injury in rats.

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Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, 155 North Nanjing Street, Shenyang, 110001, People's Republic of China.



This study was conducted to investigate the role of stromal-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) in a secondary brain injury after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats, and to further elucidate its underlying regulatory mechanisms.


Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent TBI for 30 min, and then received intracranial injections of recombinant SDF-1α, SDF-1α antibody, or saline as a vehicle control. At 24 h after TBI, brain tissues from the experimental animals were subjected to histology, immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and western blot analyses.


TBI-induced brain edema and blood-brain barrier disruption were ameliorated by post-injury injections of SDF-1α. TBI-induced neuronal degradation and apoptosis, accompanied by increased cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP and Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 were found to be attenuated by SDF-1α injection. Nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels decreased in SDF-1α treated animals after TBI. SDF-1α repressed inflammatory responses by inhibiting the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. However, neutralizing the effect of SDF-1α with its antibody abolished these therapeutic alterations in TBI animals. Importantly, SDF-1α attenuated the brain lesion by affecting the ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways after mechanical head trauma in rats.


SDF-1α ameliorates mechanical trauma-induced pathological changes via its anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory action in the brain.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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