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Tuberc Res Treat. 2013;2013:129723. doi: 10.1155/2013/129723. Epub 2013 Nov 17.

Early Therapeutic Drug Monitoring for Isoniazid and Rifampin among Diabetics with Newly Diagnosed Tuberculosis in Virginia, USA.

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Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 801340, Charlottesville, VA 22908-1340, USA.
Tuberculosis Control and Prevention, Virginia Department of Health, Richmond, VA, USA.


Slow responders to tuberculosis (TB) treatment in Virginia have prolonged treatment duration and consume more programmatic resources. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for slow response and low serum anti-TB drug concentrations. Thus, a statewide initiative of early therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) for isoniazid and rifampin at 2 weeks after TB treatment was piloted for all diabetics with newly diagnosed TB. During the period of early TDM, 12/01/2011-12/31/2012, 21 diabetics had C 2 hr concentrations performed and 16 (76%) had a value below the expected range for isoniazid, rifampin, or both. Fifteen had follow-up concentrations after dose adjustment and 12 (80%) increased to within the expected range (including all for rifampin). Of 16 diabetic patients with pulmonary TB that had early TDM, 14 (88%) converted their sputum culture to negative in <2 months. Early TDM for diabetics was operationally feasible, may speed response to TB therapy, and can be considered for TB programs with high diabetes prevalence.

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